The way in which our innate language abilities are able to influence how successfully we manage to use a language is a somewhat debated and controversial topic within the world of linguistics. Many believe that universal grammar has a very strong influence on how well an individual is able to structure sentences and use grammar while others disagree, at least with regard to how important it is in different situations. It is often argued that universal grammar has at least a moderate influence on first language acquisition, but the affect it has on second language acquisition is where the controversies lie, with many researchers having opposing opinions. Individuals who learn a foreign language frequently experience problems with using correct grammar, at least until they are very advanced in the acquisition process. A lot of the time, individuals learning a second language take a very long time to become as proficient as native speakers are, and they even often never reach the same level of proficiency as native speakers of the language. The significance of this is highly debated however, with a variety of causes being outlined as possible from many different studies.
Researches in languages for special purposes have qualified legal texts as a distinctive type of texts. The purpose of this study is to describe linguistic features of modal verbs which were found in different types of legal writing and to examine the reasons for their use. In this paper I will try to compare the use of modal verbs in European Directives and British Statutes and to investigate the expression of obligation in legal texts such as contracts which are texts which lay down the obligations and the rights of the parties to the contract.
Key words: coherence, obligation, modality, legislation, variety, statement, behaviour.
Thesis Statement: The narrator, who originally loves animals and his wife, turns violent towards them and even kills his wife, because of alcohol addiction. Alcohol addiction as a form of illness, its consequences and examples from personal experience.
Writing skill which includes language, private knowledge and skill, emotion and the interaction of personal opinion is difficult and challenging to learn and develop for many students in EFL contexts in general and in Vietnam in particular. In Vietnam, there are many teachers of English who even believe that teaching writing skill to EFL learners is more complex than teaching other communicative skills (Mazdayasna &Tahririan, 2001). Although language learners have to learn hard to have good compositions, they still have made a variety of errors or mistakes when writing. In other words, EFL learners often feel stressful and anxious when writing in a foreign language (Spratt & Leung, 2000). Consequently, language teachers and researchers have made an effort to know how they can do to help students be able to minimize their mistakes in their writing. However, they also admit that it is impossible for them or any teacher to read and correct all the students’ compositions on writing lessons because “correcting written work is time-consuming” (Ur, 1999, p.74), especially for large classes. Peer feedback (also peer correction, peer response or peer review) with its advantages can be a promising way which can be used to encourage students to read and give comments and suggestions together for enrichment of their peers’ writings before the final versions of their products are submitted to their teachers. Peer correction works as a vital part in the process approach to teaching writing because it helps learners realize their learning level as well as their demands for enhancement of writing ability. Brown (1994) and Gipps (1994) have the same opinion that feed back is one of the main factors in the process of English learning and teaching. Many other researchers, for example, Paulus (1999), Min (2006) promote the idea that verbal and written feedback should be applied to foster writing skills. This strategy, thus, has been used popularly on the writing lessons of many English classes in Vietnam consisting of those at centre of Informatics and Foreign Language, Thai Nguyen College of Education, Thai Nguyen Uni. Ur (1999, p.74) states that peer correction can help us not only save time, but also develop the “critical reading” skill for “content, organization, style and language accuracy”. Additionally, peer feedback can receive an efficient method to make students to have critical thinking of writing and assessment skills than teacher feedback. In other words, peer feedback helps learners make good use of their own effort to make their writings expressive and effective. However, in spite of its roles and impact on the process of writing, peer feedback has not been paid much attention in Vietnam. Some researchers such as Tran (2007), Phan (2007) who are interested in peer response in writing introduce their point of view, knowledge and experience about this topic in their researches which show the present state of employing peer feedback learners’ attitude and especially offer some suggestions to better the current response training.
Module 15: Revising academic writing
The “Economic Miracle” that is said to have swept across post-war Italy in the 1950s has been attributed by many scholars to the decision to open up the economy. This, in turn, gave Italy the chance to undergo a growth spurt that would help it keep pace with the rest of the world. According to Foot, “the decision, made in the 1950s, to open up the country to trade and to let it integrate into the world market allowed it to catch up rapidly with the leading economies” (2001:110). The growth spurt in the economy had wide-reaching effects. It changed the lives of the Italian people, many of whom found themselves transplanted from familiar rural areas to modern urban environments – essentially a brand new way of life. As Foot asserts, “Italy’s economic miracle transformed the country’s cultural landscape” (2001:19).
In this article the authors tried to measure the impact of cross-cultural differences on language learners’ interpretation of imageable idioms. The definition of imageable idioms: ‘idioms that have associated conventional images’ (Lakoff 1987:447). The study reported in this article investigated whether these imageable idioms call up the same scene in the language learner’s mind as in the native speaker’s mind. Guessing the meaning of the figurative expressions such as Pass the hat around or Hang on someone’s sleeve appears not to be beyond the capacities of many language learners, even at lower-intermediate levels of proficiency. The authors hypothesize that idioms relating to a metaphoric theme (conceptual metaphors or source domains) that is more salient in the target culture will tend to be less easily ‘guessable’ to language learners that those relating to a metaphoric theme that is more or equally salient in the L1 culture.
Do you have a rack at home with a CD player, tuner and equalizer? Or do you simply use a discman? If nothing else you may have a walkman? What kind of clothes do you wear? Is it a sweatshirt, jeans and boots? Do you eat fast food, or use a food processor to make something good?
Learning a second language is one adaptation skill that proves to be necessary when diverse cultures come together. For example, children from diverse linguistic backgrounds study English as a bridge to better education.
Freedom in Alexander Pushkin’s literary works occupies one of the central positions; however, Pushkin treats freedom from various sides and perspectives. Living in the period of social and political changes, in the era of the Great Patriotic War of 1812 and the revolt of Decembrist of 1825, Pushkin belonged to the generation which was in search of ideal freedom. However, being unable to attain this kind of freedom, Russian poets of the nineteenth century made constant attempts to replace one idea of freedom with another, finally realising that freedom in real life was constantly restricted. Alexander Pushkin went further than other poets of his times in his treatment of freedom, inspiring the formation of new Russian civic poetry and influencing such poets as Nekrasov and Lermontov. As Janko Lavrin points out, “what the world now understands and admires under the name of Russian literature came with and after Pushkin” (p.65).